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What is Decision making in management?, Types of Decision making, Importance of decision making.

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What is Decision making in management?Decision making is the judgment of process by which one can choose between a number of alternative courses of action for the purpose of achieving goals.  Managerial decision making is synonymous with the whole process of management. It decides what should be done? how should it be done? when and by whom should be done?
A decision may also be conceived as a conclusion that a manager has reached so as to know what he should do later on. It calls for both judgemental and imagination activity to select one from many alternatives, so decision making is an intellectual activity.

What is Production planning and Control ?

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Definition of Production planning and control:Production is the transformation of raw material into finished goods. planning looks ahead anticipate possible problems and decides in advance as to how the production carried out in the best way.  Control makes sure that the programmed production is constantly maintained.

What is Product Planning? Elements of Product Planning, Advantages of Product Planning

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Definition of Product planning:Product planning is the evaluation of the range, specification, and pricing of new and existing products according to the present and future market requirements and competition.
Planning of product is to satisfy the company objectives and to specifying the requires research, design, and development support.


What is product design?, Requirements, Factors affecting Product Design, Effect of product design on cost.

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Product Design:      Before starting to manufacture a new product or improve a product, it is essential to design the product first. When a new idea has been conceived and developed to the point at which it shows itself to be both technically and commercially stable, it considers how the product should be made, Factors affecting product design, etc.      For new and improved product design idea comes from consumer's feedback, Research and development, and other competitor's products.     Product design deals with both form and function. Form design takes care of the shape of the product and functional deals with it's working.     A design department consists of designers, engineers, and draughtsmen. Making of a new modified product will require the service of the following department of the company.       Marketing.      Research and development.      Design.      Manufacture.      Account and personnel. 


Product Design Requirements: The essential requirements of a good product …

What is plant Layout-Objectives, Types of Plant layout, Advantages and Disadvantages

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This article contains Definition of Plant Layout, Objectives of plant layout, Types of plant layout, Process layout, Production layout, combination layout, Fixed position layout, and their advantages and disadvantages. What is Plant layout?Introduction:       plant layout means arrangement of equipment, material, etc facilities and services of the plant within the selected work area to achieve the productivity as high as possible. Plant layout starts with building design and goes up to movement of work table and material handling system.
 Production in details.
Productivity in details.
Objectives of plant layout:
Bottlenecks and point of congestion are eliminated by line balancing so that material handling and transportation is minimized.work stations are designed suitably, so that movement made by the workers is minimized.Waiting time of the semi-finished products is minimized.increase the flexibility for changes in product design and future modification.Utilization of cubic space, that …

Productivity / purpose of improving productivity /Factor affecting productivity

This article contains productivity definition, the purpose of improving productivity, and factors affecting productivity. Productivity:          productivity of a production system is similar to the efficiency of the production system. Productivity may be defined as the ratio of the output of the system to its input. Output means the number of finished products or services, and inputs are land, building, equipment, material, machinery, labor, etc.
All the organization or production systems aimed to raise productivity within the available resources.
Purpose of improving productivity: 1. For Management:       Improvement of productivity means produces more goods from a comparatively lesser amount of resources. That means selling more and produce a good profit. Increases in productivity allow management to sell products at a lower price than the competition and stand better in the market.
2. For workers:        Higher productivity implies more profit of the organization and that helps th…

What is Production? - Production definition - Factors of production, production function

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This article contains Production definition, Factors of production, and production functions. What is Production?            Production is a process of value addition, which is developed to transform a set of input elements like man, raw material, capital, energy, information into finished products and services in proper quality and quantity.
          Significance of value addition in production can be transform row material into goods, assemble many small parts, or design a service. Production can be seen every day in factories, offices, hospitals, etc. Production can be agricultural, manufacturing, or service.




Factors of production:  Nature: Nature is a very important factor for any production. It is impossible to carry out production without land, water, and other resources. Suitable land and availability of water make the production easier.Labour: Human effort is a necessary factor for production. Skilled labor can make a significant difference in any production.Capital: Capital …